The development of vaccines is living a new era due to the emergence of COVID-19. During the last decades, outbreaks such as SARS, Ebola or Zika have demanded that the scientific community and the pharmaceutical industry ‘step on the accelerator’, both in the advancement of treatments for those affected and in vaccines to prevent new infections.
The number of COVID-19 cases continues to rise around the world, many countries are already in the third wave and it seems that prevention and mitigation strategies work with many limitations.
At a time of such medical urgency, several questions arise in relation to vaccines and COVID-19.
How effective are the vaccines approved to date and what are the differences between them?
Are other strategies necessary in combination with vaccines?
Are fourth or fifth waves of infection awaiting us, or can vaccines prevent them?
What deadlines are scientists and public health experts working on to end the COVID-19 pandemic?
Mariano Esteban, researcher at the Poxvirus and Vaccine Laboratory of the National Centre for Biotechnology–CSIC, Madrid.
Denise Naniche, scientific director of the Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona, ISGlobal.
Miguel G Corral, director of the Health Section of Unidad Editorial.